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The “Convention on the Rights of the Child” provides for the right of children and young people to participate in all processes that concern them

Underlining, in its article 12, the right to freely express their opinion, which must be considered according to their age and maturity.

How do we develop activities with children and young people from 3 to 14 years old?

The project JUS – Justice for Children or Project 12, in Portuguese, its main goal is to help children and young people learn more about their rights and in particular their right to be heard and to express their opinion, cf. as stated in article 12 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child

See available activities

For this purpose, a set of playful and interactive materials was developed, adjusted to three age groups: 3-6 years, 7-10 years, and 11-14 years. Some materials are played on the website, others are viewed (e.g., videos) and still others can be printed. Considering that the literature refers that hearing contexts can also be anxiety-producing, the materials include activities for emotional regulation and relaxation. These videos are subtitled and are also presented with the Portuguese Sign Language (LGP) option, seeking a more inclusive approach.

The role of the adult in this process is to be able to guide the child/youth in discovering these materials or in discussing and reflecting on some of the issues involved in them, trying to be a facilitator of a more child/youth-friendly hearing process, increasing their well-being and trust in the professional system and its actors.

Younger children learns mostly while they play. The activities therefore seek to be appealing and adjusted to the different age groups. The presence of an adult is fundamental to help the child explore the available materials, facilitating the learning process and also the emotional expression.

Activities available for children from 3-6 years old

The “Convention on the Rights of the Child” is, since 1989, and in Portugal since its ratification, in 1990, the diploma in which the essential rights of children are written, recognizing their dignity, and guaranteeing their protection. However, the youngest children, in particular, identify and know better the rights to survival and development, presenting less knowledge about the rights to protection and participation.
At the end, you will find the link to an illustrated version of the “Convention on the Rights of the Child”, written in rhyme, by the National Commission for the Promotion and Protection of Children and Young People [CNPDPCJ].

Suggested complementary activities:
• Choose a right and create with the child a new rhyme.
• Model some rights with plasticine.
• Make a drawing about the rights.
• Make a mime about one of the rights.
• Search for pictures on the Internet/magazines/newspapers related to one or more rights of the Convention.

Questions for reflection:
• “What are the rights you already knew?”
• “Are there any rights you didn’t know about? Which ones?”
• “What do you think about these rights?”
• “If adults don’t respect these rights, what should you do? Who can you talk to about it? What can you do?”

Children and young people have the right to be heard and to express their opinion on issues that concern them, as well as to see their opinion considered in the decisions that are made.
Depending on the specific context of each situation, children can be heard in different processes, judicial or extrajudicial, and in different entities, such as, for example, Social Security, Commissions for the Protection of Children and Young People (CPCJ), the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (INMLCF, I.P), the National Republican Guard (GNR), the Public Security Police (PSP), the Judiciary Police (PJ) or the court.
Before being heard, children should know how they are heard, where and who can hear them and, yet, some roles that will help them feel more confident, relaxed, and empowered.
We present a set of four videos with the dog Daffy, the character that helps the child to know in more detail how a hearing process occurs, in general and, more specifically, in CPCJ, in PJ, and in court. These videos are also available with Portuguese Sign Language (LGP).

Questions for reflection:
• “What did you learn from the Daffy?”
• “What do you think about the rooms where children are heard?”
• “Do you remember about the rules of children’s hearing? Which are they? ”
• “What are the CPCJ for?”
• “Who hears children in the PJ?”
• “What are the courts for?”
• “What are the names of the people who work in the court?”
• “How did the Daffy make you feel?”

With the goal of increasing knowledge about some rights of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, this game consists of the presentation of 12 carts. On turning the card, the player will have an illustrated description of a right.
In a playful and interactive way, the child can learn more about some of the rights.

The rights that are presented in this game are:
Article 3.º The best interests of the child
Article 9.º Separation from parents
Article 12.º The child’s opinion
Article 19.º Protection from abuse and neglect
Article 21.º Adoption
Article 22.º Refugee Children
Article 23.º Children with disabilities
Article 24.º Health and health services
Article 27.º Standard of living
Article 31.º Education
Article 34.º Sexual exploitation

Suggested complementary activities:
• Model some rights with plasticine.
• Make a drawing about the rights.
• Create a new right and illustrate it.
• Make a mime activity about one of the rights.
• Consult the illustrated version of the “Convention on the Rights of the Child” (available in “Resources”) and explore other rights.
• Look for objects related to the various rights (e.g., toy – right to play; pillow – right to rest; food – right to healthy food; paper airplane – right to freedom; cups with string connecting them – right to say what you think and feel/express your opinion).

Questions for reflection:
• “What are the rights you already knew?”
• “Are there any rights you didn’t know about? Which ones?”
• “What do you think about these rights?”
• “What did you learn from this game?”
• “If adults don’t respect these rights, how do you think you might feel? What should you do if an adult doesn’t respect any of these rights? Who can you talk about it? What can you do?”

The mazes are a familiar activity to many children, who, motivated by the discovery of the exit, go through the various paths.
With endless possibilities of different paths (the activity was built in a way that the child can find a new Maze for each game started), the child is challenged to find the way to some of the places where can be heard: Social Security, PJ and Court. To be more appealing, along the way, the child can pick up some bones to give to the Daffy dog.

Questions for reflection:
• “How did you feel while you were trying to get to… Social Security/PJ/Court?”
• “Have you been heard? How did you feel until you got there?”
• “Are you going to be heard? How do you think you’ll feel?”
• “If you feel worried, anxious, sad, or afraid, how can you express or say what are you feel?”
• “And what can you do to make yourself feel better?”
• “When the Duffy eats a bone, he feels very good and relaxed! What about you, what helps you to feel good and relaxed?”

The places where child can be heard are very variable and have different characteristics. In this game, with three levels of difficulty, the child observes an image and has to identify what is the intruder object, i.e., the one that doesn’t belong to the context that the child sees. The game is intended to make the child feel more familiar with these different places where it may be heard.
In level 1 there is an external image of a court with three correct objects (bicycle, streetlamp, and a car) and an intruder (yellow duckling from the bath).
At the level 2 the image of a courtroom appears with five correct objects (chair, microphone, table, board with scales of justice and computer) and two intruders (beach bucket and bone).
At level 3 the image of a playroom emerges with seven correct objects (coloring pencils, child’s chair, child, basket with dolls, children’s table, legos and wooden blocks) and three intruders (hair dryer, broom, and television).

Questions for reflection:
• “What do you like more/less in the courtroom?”
• “And in the playroom?”
• “Is this how you imagined the image of a courtroom? If not, how did you imagine it?”
• “Invent 3 more intrusive objects for each image”.

Before or after the hearing process, the child can experience different emotions, such as happiness, sadness, fear, anger, anxiety, or others. Child can choose different faces of Daffy and build different facial expressions, choosing the look and the mouth.

This is a game intended to help to develop emotional vocabulary and facilitate the expression of emotions (pleasant and unpleasant).

Questions for reflection:
• “How does Daffy feel?”
• “Why did you choose to make that face?”
• “Have you ever felt this way? When? Tell me about that situation.”
• “What other emotions do you know? Draw them.”
• “How do you feel thinking you will be heard in…?”
• “How did you feel after being heard in…?”
• “How can you show that you feel…?”
• “What can you do when you feel…?”

In this activity, six drawings are presented for painting, relating to: courtroom, playroom, playground, child playing with toys, child playing with Daffy, and a child holding hands with an adult.

The drawings should be printed and painted by the child.

Questions for reflection:
• “What do you think about this courtroom? Would you imagine it to be different? If yes, how? What are the children’s rights that this drawing reminds you of?”
• “This room with toys is a room where they hear to children. What do you think about this room? Would you like it to be different? If yes, how? What are the children’s rights that this drawing reminds you of?”
• “In this picture is… a child and an adult/a child playing/ a child with the Daffy. How does the child feel? What are the children’s rights that this drawing reminds you of?”

When the child knows will be heard, she/he may experience an increase of worry and anxiety, often associated to physiological chances (e.g., increased heart rate or respiratory rate, sweating, trembling) or behavioral chances (difficulty falling asleep, nightmares, chances in appetite).
In an anxious state, learning to breathe deeply (so-called diaphragmatic breathing) is fundamental to help the child to control his/her anxiety (e.g., decreasing the likelihood of gasping for breath). Deep breathing means that the child should be helped to inhale very slowly and deeply, and then very slowly let the air out. Often the metaphor of “inhaling as if smelling a flower, and exhaling as if blowing out the candles on a birthday cake” is used.
In this short video, the Daffy breathes in and out, showing the child how to do it, thus taking on a role-model.

Steps:
The adult should:
1. Show the Daffy video breathing in and out, explaining to the child the importance and advantages of breathing this way.
2. Imitate the Daffy and breathe deeply and slowly, too.
3. Ask the child to imitate the Daffy for brief minutes, at the same time she/he watches the video.
4. Ask the child to say how she/he feels after breathing in this way.
5. Help the child to identify different situations in which breathing in this way might help her/him feel more relaxed.

O Glossário ilustrado apresenta a definição de 16 termos, organizados em função dos diversos locais onde a criança pode ser ouvida, numa linguagem clara e acessível a crianças desta faixa etária. O Glossário ilustrado é especialmente importante na medida em que ajuda a criança a melhor compreender alguns conceitos e a sentir-se mais informado, o que tende a minimizar algumas preocupações ou mesmo um possível estado de ansiedade.
Estas definições pretendem ajudar o adulto a explicar à criança os diversos conceitos.

Os termos definidos são os seguintes: Tribunal, Juiz, Procurador do Ministério Público, Adoção, Advogado, Oficial de Justiça, Vítima, Testemunha, Comissão de Proteção de Crianças e Jovens (CPCJ), Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal e Ciências Forenses (INMLCF), Centro de Apoio Familiar e Aconselhamento Parental (CAFAP), Polícia de Segurança Pública (PSP), Guarda Nacional Republicana (GNR), Polícia Judiciária (PJ), Segurança Social, Hospital.

Após a audição da criança, é importante incentivá-la a expressar as suas emoções. O que sentiu enquanto estava a ser ouvida, como se sente agora, o que gostou mais ou menos?

De uma forma lúdica e descontraída, este material ajuda a criança a expressar-se, o que permite ao adulto ajudá-la a regular eventuais emoções mais desagradáveis.

O Diploma é uma forma de reforçar a criança pela sua colaboração no processo de audição.

Activities available for children from 7-10 years old
The “Convention on the Rights of the Child” is, since 1989, and in Portugal since its ratification, in 1990, the diploma in which the essential rights of children are written, recognizing their dignity, and guaranteeing their protection. However, the youngest children, in particular, identify and know better the rights to survival and development, presenting less knowledge about the rights to protection and participation.
At the end, you will find some useful links: “Convention on the Rights of the Child”, full version and illustrated version written in rhyme, by the National Commission for the Promotion and Protection of Children and Young People [CNPDPCJ]; video of the event organized by UNICEF to celebrate the adoption of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, by the UN General Assembly, and the Human Rights Convention.

Suggested complementary activities:
• Choose a right and create with the child a new rhyme.
• Model some rights with plasticine.
• Make a drawing about the rights.
• Make a mime about one of the rights.
• Search for pictures on the Internet/magazines/newspapers related to one or more rights of the Convention.
• Record a short video in which the child talks about Children’s Rights.

Questions for reflection:
• “What are the rights you already knew?”
• “Are there any rights you didn’t know about? Which ones?”
• “What do you think about these rights?”
• “If adults don’t respect these rights, what should you do? Who can you talk to about it? What can you do?”

Children and young people have the right to be heard and to express their opinion on issues that concern them, as well as to see their opinion considered in the decisions that are made.
Depending on the specific context of each situation, children can be heard in different processes, judicial or extrajudicial, and in different entities, such as, for example, Social Security, Commissions for the Protection of Children and Young People (CPCJ), the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (INMLCF, I.P), the National Republican Guard (GNR), the Public Security Police (PSP), the Judiciary Police (PJ) or the court.
Before being heard, children should know how they are heard, where and who can hear them and, yet, some roles that will help them feel more confident, relaxed, and empowered.
We present a set of four videos with the dog Daffy, the character that helps the child to know in more detail how a hearing process occurs, in general and, more specifically, in CPCJ, in PJ, and in court. These videos are also available with Portuguese Sign Language (LGP).

Questions for reflection:
• “What did you learn from the Daffy?”
• “What do you think about the rooms where children are heard?”
• “Do you remember about the rules of children’s hearing? Which are they? ”
• “What are the CPCJ for?”
• “Who hears children in the PJ?”
• “What are the courts for?”
• “What are the names of the people who work in the court?”
• “How did the Daffy make you feel?”

With the goal of increasing knowledge about some rights of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, this game consists of the presentation of 12 carts. On turning the card, the player will have an illustrated description of a right.
In a playful and interactive way, the child can learn more about some of the rights.

The rights that are presented in this game are:
Article 3.º The best interests of the child
Article 9.º Separation from parents
Article 12.º The child’s opinion
Article 19.º Protection from abuse and neglect
Article 21.º Adoption
Article 22.º Refugee Children
Article 23.º Children with disabilities
Article 24.º Health and health services
Article 27.º Standard of living
Article 31.º Education
Article 34.º Sexual exploitation

Suggested complementary activities:
• Model some rights with plasticine.
• Make a drawing about the rights.
• Create a new right and illustrate it.
• Make a mime activity about one of the rights.
• Consult the illustrated version of the “Convention on the Rights of the Child” (available in “Resources”) and explore other rights.
• Look for objects related to the various rights (e.g., toy – right to play; pillow – right to rest; food – right to healthy food; paper airplane – right to freedom; cups with string connecting them – right to say what you think and feel/express your opinion; book – right to education; cotton – right to receive medical care).

Questions for reflection:
• “What are the rights you already knew?”
• “Are there any rights you didn’t know about? Which ones?”
• “What do you think about these rights?”
• “What did you learn from this game?”
• “If adults don’t respect these rights, how do you think you might feel? What should you do if an adult doesn’t respect any of these rights? Who can you talk about it? What can you do?”

The mazes are a familiar activity to many children, who, motivated by the discovery of the exit, go through the various paths.
With endless possibilities of different paths (the activity was built in a way that the child can find a new Maze for each game started), the child is challenged to find the way to some of the places where can be heard: Social Security, PJ and Court. To be more appealing, along the way, the child can pick up some bones to give to the Daffy dog.

Questions for reflection:
• “How did you feel while you were trying to get to… Social Security/PJ/Court?”
• “Have you been heard? How did you feel until you got there?”
• “Are you going to be heard? How do you think you’ll feel?”
• “If you feel worried, anxious, sad, or afraid, how can you express or say what are you feel?”
• “And what can you do to make yourself feel better?”
• “When the Duffy eats a bone, he feels very good and relaxed! What about you, what helps you to feel good and relaxed?”

Before or after a hearing process, children are expected to experience different emotions (pleasant or unpleasant). Unpleasant emotions are more difficult to express, the emotion roulette appears, then, as a game that facilitates this emotional expression process, facilitating the expression of sadness, guilt, fear, anger, shame, worry, frustration, and a general malaise sense. It is also intended to help the child to express more pleasant emotions, such as joy, courage, tranquility or a sense of well-being.

The child should spin the wheel, read the corresponding sentence, and say how she/he feels. If they can’t do it by themselves, the adult should help by reading the sentences.

Questions for reflection:
• “Tell me about other situations when you felt this way”.
• “When you feel this way, what can you say to yourself, to make you feel better?”
• “When you feel this way, what can you do to make yourself feel better?”
• “Who can you ask for help, if you feel this way?”

The wordsearch game is a familiar activity for many children that aims to search for the identified words. For this age group, this game has 6 words to find (out of 43 possible words), which appear randomly and which the child must search for.

The possible words are the following:
Court, Hear, Participate, Rights, Opinion, Children, Judge, Lawyer, Technician, Inspector, Duties, Police, Law, Argued, Hearing, Crime, Truth, Decision, Emotions, Secret, CPCJ, PJ, MP, Interests, Protection, Safety, Fear, Relax, Breathe, Relief, Victim, Innocent, Guilty, Empower, Honesty, Justice, Feelings.

Questions for reflection:
• “Did you know these word(s) before? What does it mean(s)?”
• “To you, this word means…”
• “Let’s figure out together the meaning of this word?”
• “What other words do you know that are similar to this one/have the same meaning?”
• “After you have found these words, are there any others that you think are similar that are not here?”

This activity involves the presentation of a total of 12 affirmations, and after reading each one, the child must choose one of two options: True or False.
After answering, the child will see a short message, telling him/her if she/he got it right or wrong. Independently of getting it right or wrong, a short additional explanation of the topic is always presented.
The affirmations that compose this activity are the following:

1 – I will be heard, and I can say that I didn’t understand the question.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – Good! If you don’t understand the question, you should ask to be explained a little better!
F – Wrong! If you don’t understand the question, you should ask to be explained a little better!

2 – My opinion is the only one that counts for the final decision.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – No! Your opinion is important, but there are other information and opinions that also count for the final decision!
F – Right! Your opinion is important, but there are other information and opinions that also count for the final decision!

3 – I am a child and I also have the right to have a lawyer.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – Correct! You have the right to a lawyer that can be requested by you, your parents, the public prosecutor, or the judge.
F – It was true! You have the right to a lawyer that can be requested by you, your parents, the public prosecutor, or the judge.
4 – The person who listens to me is concerned about defending my interests and rights.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – That’s right! The person who listens to you is concerned about defending your interests and rights!
F – Incorrect! The person who listens to you is concerned about defending your interests and rights!

5 – Being heard is like school: there are right and wrong answers.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – False! When you are being heard, remember that there are no right or wrong answers. It is about your opinion and your emotions and experiences.
F – True! When you are being heard, remember that there are no right or wrong answers. It is about your opinion and your emotions and experiences.

6 – When being heard, I must hide my emotions.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – No! When being heard, you should talk about what you are feeling. Your emotions are very important!
F – Right! When being heard, you should talk about what you are feeling. Your emotions are very important!

7. I can be heard at the court, at the CPCJ or in other services.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – You got it right! Being heard is a right that you have, and you can be heard in different services.
F – You’re wrong! Being heard is a right that you have, and you can be heard in different services.

8. When I am heard, I should say only what I know and remember.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – That’s right! You should tell the truth and only what you know and remember. You should not try to guess the answers or say what you think other people would like to hear.
F – Incorrect! You should tell the truth and only what you know and remember. You should not try to guess the answers or say what you think other people would like to hear.

9. It is very important to tell the truth.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – Very good! It is fundamental that you only tell the truth!
F – That’s wrong! It is fundamental that you only tell the truth!

10. At age 12, I can decide who I want to live with.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – You’re wrong! At age 12 you already have some maturity, but still, the final decision about who you should live with is always up to the court.
F – You got it right! At age 12 you already have some maturity, but still, the final decision about who you should live with is always up to the court.

11. Everything I say to technicians and judges is kept secret.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – You’re wrong! Confidentiality has some limitations, which means that what you say may be shared with other people who are part of the process.
F – Very good! Confidentiality has some limitations, which means that what you say may be shared with other people who are part of the process.

12. I am always heard alone.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – False! You have the right to be heard accompanied by a person you trust or a technician who will help you feel more comfortable.
F – That’s right! You have the right to be heard accompanied by a person you trust or a technician who will help you feel more comfortable.

The memory game is a familiar game to many children in this age group, and consists of trying to find the pairs of cards with matching images.
The game is presented with three levels of difficulty, and these levels are presented sequentially:
Level 1 – 12 cards (6 pairs)
Level 2 – 14 cards (7 pairs)
Level 3 – 16 cards (8 pairs)

The images that must be paired are as follows:
Child; Lawyer; Judge; Prosecutor; Daffy; PJ Inspector and Justice Officer.

Questions for reflection:
• “What is a/an … lawyer/judge/prosecutor/PJ Inspector and Justice Officer?”
• “How does this child who is going to be heard feel?”
• “Look at the Daffy! How can the Daffy help you relax when you are being heard in…?”

When the child knows will be heard, she/he may experience an increase of worry and anxiety, often associated to physiological chances (e.g., increased heart rate or respiratory rate, sweating, trembling) or behavioral chances (difficulty falling asleep, nightmares, chances in appetite).
In an anxious state, learning to breathe deeply (so-called diaphragmatic breathing) is fundamental to help the child to control his/her anxiety (e.g., decreasing the likelihood of gasping for breath). Deep breathing means that the child should be helped to inhale very slowly and deeply, and then very slowly let the air out. Often the metaphor of “inhaling as if smelling a flower, and exhaling as if blowing out the candles on a birthday cake” is used.
In this short video, the Daffy breathes in and out, showing the child how to do it, thus taking on a role-model.

Steps:
The adult should:
1. Show the Daffy video breathing in and out, explaining to the child the importance and advantages of breathing this way.
2. Imitate the Daffy and breathe deeply and slowly, too.
3. Ask the child to imitate the Daffy for brief minutes, at the same time she/he watches the video.
4. Ask the child to say how she/he feels after breathing in this way.
5. Help the child to identify different situations in which breathing in this way might help her/him feel more relaxed.

O Glossário ilustrado apresenta a definição de 16 termos, organizados em função dos diversos locais onde a criança pode ser ouvida, numa linguagem clara e acessível a crianças desta faixa etária. O Glossário ilustrado é especialmente importante na medida em que ajuda a criança a melhor compreender alguns conceitos e a sentir-se mais informado, o que tende a minimizar algumas preocupações ou mesmo um possível estado de ansiedade.
Estas definições pretendem ajudar o adulto a explicar à criança os diversos conceitos.

Os termos definidos são os seguintes: Tribunal, Juiz, Procurador do Ministério Público, Adoção, Advogado, Oficial de Justiça, Vítima, Testemunha, Comissão de Proteção de Crianças e Jovens (CPCJ), Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal e Ciências Forenses (INMLCF), Centro de Apoio Familiar e Aconselhamento Parental (CAFAP), Polícia de Segurança Pública (PSP), Guarda Nacional Republicana (GNR), Polícia Judiciária (PJ), Segurança Social, Hospital.

Após a audição da criança, é importante incentivá-la a expressar as suas emoções. O que sentiu enquanto estava a ser ouvida, como se sente agora, o que gostou mais ou menos?

De uma forma lúdica e descontraída, este material ajuda a criança a expressar-se, o que permite ao adulto ajudá-la a regular eventuais emoções mais desagradáveis.

O Diploma é uma forma de reforçar a criança pela sua colaboração no processo de audição.

Activities available for children and young people from 11-14 years old

The “Convention on the Rights of the Child” is, since 1989, and in Portugal since its ratification, in 1990, the diploma in which the essential rights of children and young people are written, recognizing their dignity, and guaranteeing their protection.
At the end, you will find some useful links: Convention on the Rights of the Child, video of the event organized by UNICEF to celebrate the adoption of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, by the UN General Assembly, and the Human Rights Convention.

Suggested complementary activities:
• Search for pictures on the Internet/magazines/newspapers related to one or more rights of the Convention.
• Record a video in which the young talks about Children’s Rights.

Questions for reflection:
• “What are the rights you already knew?”
• “Are there any rights you didn’t know about? Which ones?”
• “What do you think about these rights?”
• “If adults don’t respect these rights, what should you do? Who can you talk to about it? What can you do?”
• “Did you know these Human Rights? What do you think about them?”

Children and young people have the right to be heard and to express their opinion on issues that concern them, as well as to see their opinion considered in the decisions that are made.
Depending on the specific context of each situation, children/young people can be heard in different processes, judicial or extrajudicial, and in different entities, such as, for example, Social Security, Commissions for the Protection of Children and Young People (CPCJ), the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (INMLCF, I.P), the National Republican Guard (GNR), the Public Security Police (PSP), the Judiciary Police (PJ), the Directorate-General of Reintegration and Prison Services (DGRSP) or the court.
Before being heard, children or young should know how they are heard, where and who can hear them and, yet, some roles that will help them feel more confident, relaxed, and empowered.
We present a set of five videos that explain what a hearing process of children and young people is, what the rules are, and yet, some specifics of the hearing at CPCJ, in the PJ, and in court.

Questions for reflection:
• “Did you remember the rules of children and young people hearing? What are they?”
• “What do you think about these rules?”
• “What are the CPCJ for?”
• “Who hears children in the PJ and in what kinds of processes?”
• “Why are children and young people heard in court?”
• “How do you feel when you think that you are going to be heard?”

With the goal of increasing knowledge about some rights of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, this game consists of the presentation of 12 carts. On turning the card, the player will have an illustrated description of a right.

In a playful and interactive way, the child can learn more about some of the rights.

The rights that are presented in this game are:

Article 3.º The best interests of the child

Article 9.º Separation from parents

Article 12.º The child’s opinion

Article 19.º Protection from abuse and neglect

Article 21.º Adoption

Article 22.º Refugee Children

Article 23.º Children with disabilities

Article 24.º Health and health services

Article 27.º Standard of living

Article 31.º Education

Article 34.º Sexual exploitation

Suggested complementary activities:

Model some rights with plasticine.
Make a drawing about the rights.
Create a new right and illustrate it.
Make a mime activity about one of the rights.
Consult the illustrated version of the “Convention on the Rights of the Child” (available in “Resources”) and explore other rights.
Look for objects related to the various rights (e.g., toy – right to play; pillow – right to rest; food – right to healthy food; paper airplane – right to freedom; cups with string connecting them – right to say what you think and feel/express your opinion).

Questions for reflection:

“What are the rights you already knew?”
“Are there any rights you didn’t know about? Which ones?”
“What do you think about these rights?”
“What did you learn from this game?”
“If adults don’t respect these rights, how do you think you might feel? What should you do if an adult doesn’t respect any of these rights? Who can you talk about it? What can you do?”

When the child knows will be heard, she/he may experience an increase of worry and anxiety, often associated to physiological chances (e.g., increased heart rate or respiratory rate, sweating, trembling) or behavioral chances (e.g., difficulty falling asleep, nightmares, chances in appetite).
In an anxious state, learning to breathe deeply (so-called diaphragmatic breathing) is fundamental to help the child to control his/her anxiety (e.g., decreasing the likelihood of gasping for breath).

Deep breathing means that the child should be helped to inhale very slowly and deeply, and then very slowly let the air out.

In this podcasts section it is possible to read or listen to the testimonies of six young people who were heard in the Commissions for the Protection of Children and Young People (CPCJ), in Social Security, in court, in the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (INMLCF, I.P), in the Directorate-General of Reintegration and Prison Services (DGRSP), and in the Judiciary Police (PJ). In each testimony, the young explain the reasons for his or her hearing, how they felt, and what they learned. The testimonies also try to establish a relationship with the different children’s and young people’s rights.
A podcast on relaxation is also presented, with a brief relaxation training that the child/young should try, train, and use whenever they feel more anxious or worried.

Questions for reflection:
– “What do you think about this testimony?”
– “How do you think it made him/her feel…?
– “Imagine it was you being heard in… how would you feel?”
– “Does this testimony make you think about of any other children’s and young people’s rights? Which one(s)?”
– “In what situations do you feel more anxious or worried?”
– “What helps you relax when you feel more anxious or worried?”

In this podcasts section it is possible to read or listen to the testimonies of six young people who were heard in the Commissions for the Protection of Children and Young People (CPCJ), in Social Security, in court, in the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (INMLCF, I.P), in the Directorate-General of Reintegration and Prison Services (DGRSP), and in the Judiciary Police (PJ). In each testimony, the young explain the reasons for his or her hearing, how they felt, and what they learned. The testimonies also try to establish a relationship with the different children’s and young people’s rights.
A podcast on relaxation is also presented, with a brief relaxation training that the child/young should try, train, and use whenever they feel more anxious or worried.

Questions for reflection:
– “What do you think about this testimony?”
– “How do you think it made him/her feel…?
– “Imagine it was you being heard in… how would you feel?”
– “Does this testimony make you think about of any other children’s and young people’s rights? Which one(s)?”
– “In what situations do you feel more anxious or worried?”
– “What helps you relax when you feel more anxious or worried?”

Before or after a hearing process, children are expected to experience different emotions (pleasant or unpleasant). Unpleasant emotions are more difficult to express, the emotion roulette appears, then, as a game that facilitates this emotional expression process, facilitating the expression of sadness, guilt, fear, anger, shame, worry, frustration, and a general malaise sense. It is also intended to help the child to express more pleasant emotions, such as joy, courage, tranquility or a sense of well-being.

The child should spin the wheel, read the corresponding sentence, and say how she/he feels. If they can’t do it by themselves, the adult should help by reading the sentences.

Questions for reflection:
• “Tell me about other situations when you felt this way”.
• “When you feel this way, what can you say to yourself, to make you feel better?”
• “When you feel this way, what can you do to make yourself feel better?”
• “Who can you ask for help, if you feel this way?”

The wordsearch game is a familiar activity for many children that aims to search for the identified words. For this age group, the game has 10 words to find (out of 43 possible words), which appear randomly and which the child/young must search for.

The possible words are the following:
Court, Hear, Participate, Rights, Opinion, Children, Judge, Lawyer, Technician, Inspector, Duties, Police, Law, Argued, Hearing, Crime, Truth, Decision, Emotions, Secret, CPCJ, PJ, MP, Interests, Protection, Safety, Fear, Relax, Breathe, Relief, Victim, Innocent, Guilty, Empower, Honesty, Justice, Feelings.

Questions for reflection:
• “Did you know these word(s) before? What does it mean(s)?”
• “To you, this word means…”
• “Let’s figure out together the meaning of this word?”
• “What other words do you know that are similar to this one/have the same meaning?”
• “After you have found these words, are there any others that you think are similar that are not here?”

This activity involves the presentation of a total of 12 affirmations, and after reading each one, the child must choose one of two options: True or False.
After answering, the child will see a short message, telling him/her if she/he got it right or wrong. Independently of getting it right or wrong, a short additional explanation of the topic is always presented.
The affirmations that compose this activity are the following:

1 – I will be heard, and I can say that I didn’t understand the question.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – Good! If you don’t understand the question, you should ask to be explained a little better!
F – Wrong! If you don’t understand the question, you should ask to be explained a little better!

2 – My opinion is the only one that counts for the final decision.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – No! Your opinion is important, but there are other information and opinions that also count for the final decision!
F – Right! Your opinion is important, but there are other information and opinions that also count for the final decision!

3 – I am a child and I also have the right to have a lawyer.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – Correct! You have the right to a lawyer that can be requested by you, your parents, the public prosecutor, or the judge.
F – It was true! You have the right to a lawyer that can be requested by you, your parents, the public prosecutor, or the judge.
4 – The person who listens to me is concerned about defending my interests and rights.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – That’s right! The person who listens to you is concerned about defending your interests and rights!
F – Incorrect! The person who listens to you is concerned about defending your interests and rights!

5 – Being heard is like school: there are right and wrong answers.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – False! When you are being heard, remember that there are no right or wrong answers. It is about your opinion and your emotions and experiences.
F – True! When you are being heard, remember that there are no right or wrong answers. It is about your opinion and your emotions and experiences.

6 – When being heard, I must hide my emotions.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – No! When being heard, you should talk about what you are feeling. Your emotions are very important!
F – Right! When being heard, you should talk about what you are feeling. Your emotions are very important!

7. I can be heard at the court, at the CPCJ or in other services.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – You got it right! Being heard is a right that you have, and you can be heard in different services.
F – You’re wrong! Being heard is a right that you have, and you can be heard in different services.

8. When I am heard, I should say only what I know and remember.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – That’s right! You should tell the truth and only what you know and remember. You should not try to guess the answers or say what you think other people would like to hear.
F – Incorrect! You should tell the truth and only what you know and remember. You should not try to guess the answers or say what you think other people would like to hear.

9. It is very important to tell the truth.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – Very good! It is fundamental that you only tell the truth!
F – That’s wrong! It is fundamental that you only tell the truth!

10. At age 12, I can decide who I want to live with.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – You’re wrong! At age 12 you already have some maturity, but still, the final decision about who you should live with is always up to the court.
F – You got it right! At age 12 you already have some maturity, but still, the final decision about who you should live with is always up to the court.

11. Everything I say to technicians and judges is kept secret.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – You’re wrong! Confidentiality has some limitations, which means that what you say may be shared with other people who are part of the process.
F – Very good! Confidentiality has some limitations, which means that what you say may be shared with other people who are part of the process.

12. I am always heard alone.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – False! You have the right to be heard accompanied by a person you trust or a technician who will help you feel more comfortable.
F – That’s right! You have the right to be heard accompanied by a person you trust or a technician who will help you feel more comfortable.

The Glossary presents the definition of 62 terms, in alphabetical order, in clear and accessible language for children and young people in this age group. Also present in the “Resources” section, the Glossary is especially important because it helps the child/young better understand some concepts and feel more informed, which tends to minimize a possible state of anxiety.

The defined terms are the following: Sexual abuse, judgment/ruling (pt: acórdão), accusation, adoption, lawyer, defendant, social worker, child hearing, gown (pt: beca), cybercrime, commission for the protection of children and young people, consent, crime, detention, child rights, directorate-general of reintegration and prison services, national republican guard, inquiry, national institute of legal medicine and forensic sciences, judge, social judge, trial, law of promotion and protection of children and young people in danger, educational tutelary law, maltreatment, tutelary educational measures, negligence, injured (pt: ofendido), bailiff (pt: oficial de justiça), criminal police organizations/agencies, prison sentence, judicial police, public security police, prosecutor, tutelares cíveis, psychologist, plaintiff, parental responsibilities, defendant, social security, sentence, suspect, witness, toga, court, family and juvenile court, victim.

Activities available for children from 3-6 years old

The “Convention on the Rights of the Child” is, since 1989, and in Portugal since its ratification, in 1990, the diploma in which the essential rights of children are written, recognizing their dignity, and guaranteeing their protection. However, the youngest children, in particular, identify and know better the rights to survival and development, presenting less knowledge about the rights to protection and participation.
At the end, you will find the link to an illustrated version of the “Convention on the Rights of the Child”, written in rhyme, by the National Commission for the Promotion and Protection of Children and Young People [CNPDPCJ].

Suggested complementary activities:
• Choose a right and create with the child a new rhyme.
• Model some rights with plasticine.
• Make a drawing about the rights.
• Make a mime about one of the rights.
• Search for pictures on the Internet/magazines/newspapers related to one or more rights of the Convention.

Questions for reflection:
• “What are the rights you already knew?”
• “Are there any rights you didn’t know about? Which ones?”
• “What do you think about these rights?”
• “If adults don’t respect these rights, what should you do? Who can you talk to about it? What can you do?”

Children and young people have the right to be heard and to express their opinion on issues that concern them, as well as to see their opinion considered in the decisions that are made.
Depending on the specific context of each situation, children can be heard in different processes, judicial or extrajudicial, and in different entities, such as, for example, Social Security, Commissions for the Protection of Children and Young People (CPCJ), the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (INMLCF, I.P), the National Republican Guard (GNR), the Public Security Police (PSP), the Judiciary Police (PJ) or the court.
Before being heard, children should know how they are heard, where and who can hear them and, yet, some roles that will help them feel more confident, relaxed, and empowered.
We present a set of four videos with the dog Daffy, the character that helps the child to know in more detail how a hearing process occurs, in general and, more specifically, in CPCJ, in PJ, and in court. These videos are also available with Portuguese Sign Language (LGP).

Questions for reflection:
• “What did you learn from the Daffy?”
• “What do you think about the rooms where children are heard?”
• “Do you remember about the rules of children’s hearing? Which are they? ”
• “What are the CPCJ for?”
• “Who hears children in the PJ?”
• “What are the courts for?”
• “What are the names of the people who work in the court?”
• “How did the Daffy make you feel?”

With the goal of increasing knowledge about some rights of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, this game consists of the presentation of 12 carts. On turning the card, the player will have an illustrated description of a right.
In a playful and interactive way, the child can learn more about some of the rights.

The rights that are presented in this game are:
Article 3.º The best interests of the child
Article 9.º Separation from parents
Article 12.º The child’s opinion
Article 19.º Protection from abuse and neglect
Article 21.º Adoption
Article 22.º Refugee Children
Article 23.º Children with disabilities
Article 24.º Health and health services
Article 27.º Standard of living
Article 31.º Education
Article 34.º Sexual exploitation

Suggested complementary activities:
• Model some rights with plasticine.
• Make a drawing about the rights.
• Create a new right and illustrate it.
• Make a mime activity about one of the rights.
• Consult the illustrated version of the “Convention on the Rights of the Child” (available in “Resources”) and explore other rights.
• Look for objects related to the various rights (e.g., toy – right to play; pillow – right to rest; food – right to healthy food; paper airplane – right to freedom; cups with string connecting them – right to say what you think and feel/express your opinion).

Questions for reflection:
• “What are the rights you already knew?”
• “Are there any rights you didn’t know about? Which ones?”
• “What do you think about these rights?”
• “What did you learn from this game?”
• “If adults don’t respect these rights, how do you think you might feel? What should you do if an adult doesn’t respect any of these rights? Who can you talk about it? What can you do?”

The mazes are a familiar activity to many children, who, motivated by the discovery of the exit, go through the various paths.
With endless possibilities of different paths (the activity was built in a way that the child can find a new Maze for each game started), the child is challenged to find the way to some of the places where can be heard: Social Security, PJ and Court. To be more appealing, along the way, the child can pick up some bones to give to the Daffy dog.

Questions for reflection:
• “How did you feel while you were trying to get to… Social Security/PJ/Court?”
• “Have you been heard? How did you feel until you got there?”
• “Are you going to be heard? How do you think you’ll feel?”
• “If you feel worried, anxious, sad, or afraid, how can you express or say what are you feel?”
• “And what can you do to make yourself feel better?”
• “When the Duffy eats a bone, he feels very good and relaxed! What about you, what helps you to feel good and relaxed?”

The places where child can be heard are very variable and have different characteristics. In this game, with three levels of difficulty, the child observes an image and has to identify what is the intruder object, i.e., the one that doesn’t belong to the context that the child sees. The game is intended to make the child feel more familiar with these different places where it may be heard.
In level 1 there is an external image of a court with three correct objects (bicycle, streetlamp, and a car) and an intruder (yellow duckling from the bath).
At the level 2 the image of a courtroom appears with five correct objects (chair, microphone, table, board with scales of justice and computer) and two intruders (beach bucket and bone).
At level 3 the image of a playroom emerges with seven correct objects (coloring pencils, child’s chair, child, basket with dolls, children’s table, legos and wooden blocks) and three intruders (hair dryer, broom, and television).

Questions for reflection:
• “What do you like more/less in the courtroom?”
• “And in the playroom?”
• “Is this how you imagined the image of a courtroom? If not, how did you imagine it?”
• “Invent 3 more intrusive objects for each image”.

Before or after the hearing process, the child can experience different emotions, such as happiness, sadness, fear, anger, anxiety, or others. Child can choose different faces of Daffy and build different facial expressions, choosing the look and the mouth.

This is a game intended to help to develop emotional vocabulary and facilitate the expression of emotions (pleasant and unpleasant).

Questions for reflection:
• “How does Daffy feel?”
• “Why did you choose to make that face?”
• “Have you ever felt this way? When? Tell me about that situation.”
• “What other emotions do you know? Draw them.”
• “How do you feel thinking you will be heard in…?”
• “How did you feel after being heard in…?”
• “How can you show that you feel…?”
• “What can you do when you feel…?”

In this activity, six drawings are presented for painting, relating to: courtroom, playroom, playground, child playing with toys, child playing with Daffy, and a child holding hands with an adult.

The drawings should be printed and painted by the child.

Questions for reflection:
• “What do you think about this courtroom? Would you imagine it to be different? If yes, how? What are the children’s rights that this drawing reminds you of?”
• “This room with toys is a room where they hear to children. What do you think about this room? Would you like it to be different? If yes, how? What are the children’s rights that this drawing reminds you of?”
• “In this picture is… a child and an adult/a child playing/ a child with the Daffy. How does the child feel? What are the children’s rights that this drawing reminds you of?”

When the child knows will be heard, she/he may experience an increase of worry and anxiety, often associated to physiological chances (e.g., increased heart rate or respiratory rate, sweating, trembling) or behavioral chances (difficulty falling asleep, nightmares, chances in appetite).
In an anxious state, learning to breathe deeply (so-called diaphragmatic breathing) is fundamental to help the child to control his/her anxiety (e.g., decreasing the likelihood of gasping for breath). Deep breathing means that the child should be helped to inhale very slowly and deeply, and then very slowly let the air out. Often the metaphor of “inhaling as if smelling a flower, and exhaling as if blowing out the candles on a birthday cake” is used.
In this short video, the Daffy breathes in and out, showing the child how to do it, thus taking on a role-model.

Steps:
The adult should:
1. Show the Daffy video breathing in and out, explaining to the child the importance and advantages of breathing this way.
2. Imitate the Daffy and breathe deeply and slowly, too.
3. Ask the child to imitate the Daffy for brief minutes, at the same time she/he watches the video.
4. Ask the child to say how she/he feels after breathing in this way.
5. Help the child to identify different situations in which breathing in this way might help her/him feel more relaxed.

O Glossário ilustrado apresenta a definição de 16 termos, organizados em função dos diversos locais onde a criança pode ser ouvida, numa linguagem clara e acessível a crianças desta faixa etária. O Glossário ilustrado é especialmente importante na medida em que ajuda a criança a melhor compreender alguns conceitos e a sentir-se mais informado, o que tende a minimizar algumas preocupações ou mesmo um possível estado de ansiedade.
Estas definições pretendem ajudar o adulto a explicar à criança os diversos conceitos.

Os termos definidos são os seguintes: Tribunal, Juiz, Procurador do Ministério Público, Adoção, Advogado, Oficial de Justiça, Vítima, Testemunha, Comissão de Proteção de Crianças e Jovens (CPCJ), Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal e Ciências Forenses (INMLCF), Centro de Apoio Familiar e Aconselhamento Parental (CAFAP), Polícia de Segurança Pública (PSP), Guarda Nacional Republicana (GNR), Polícia Judiciária (PJ), Segurança Social, Hospital.

Após a audição da criança, é importante incentivá-la a expressar as suas emoções. O que sentiu enquanto estava a ser ouvida, como se sente agora, o que gostou mais ou menos?

De uma forma lúdica e descontraída, este material ajuda a criança a expressar-se, o que permite ao adulto ajudá-la a regular eventuais emoções mais desagradáveis.

O Diploma é uma forma de reforçar a criança pela sua colaboração no processo de audição.

Activities available for children from 7-10 years old
The “Convention on the Rights of the Child” is, since 1989, and in Portugal since its ratification, in 1990, the diploma in which the essential rights of children are written, recognizing their dignity, and guaranteeing their protection. However, the youngest children, in particular, identify and know better the rights to survival and development, presenting less knowledge about the rights to protection and participation.
At the end, you will find some useful links: “Convention on the Rights of the Child”, full version and illustrated version written in rhyme, by the National Commission for the Promotion and Protection of Children and Young People [CNPDPCJ]; video of the event organized by UNICEF to celebrate the adoption of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, by the UN General Assembly, and the Human Rights Convention.

Suggested complementary activities:
• Choose a right and create with the child a new rhyme.
• Model some rights with plasticine.
• Make a drawing about the rights.
• Make a mime about one of the rights.
• Search for pictures on the Internet/magazines/newspapers related to one or more rights of the Convention.
• Record a short video in which the child talks about Children’s Rights.

Questions for reflection:
• “What are the rights you already knew?”
• “Are there any rights you didn’t know about? Which ones?”
• “What do you think about these rights?”
• “If adults don’t respect these rights, what should you do? Who can you talk to about it? What can you do?”

Children and young people have the right to be heard and to express their opinion on issues that concern them, as well as to see their opinion considered in the decisions that are made.
Depending on the specific context of each situation, children can be heard in different processes, judicial or extrajudicial, and in different entities, such as, for example, Social Security, Commissions for the Protection of Children and Young People (CPCJ), the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (INMLCF, I.P), the National Republican Guard (GNR), the Public Security Police (PSP), the Judiciary Police (PJ) or the court.
Before being heard, children should know how they are heard, where and who can hear them and, yet, some roles that will help them feel more confident, relaxed, and empowered.
We present a set of four videos with the dog Daffy, the character that helps the child to know in more detail how a hearing process occurs, in general and, more specifically, in CPCJ, in PJ, and in court. These videos are also available with Portuguese Sign Language (LGP).

Questions for reflection:
• “What did you learn from the Daffy?”
• “What do you think about the rooms where children are heard?”
• “Do you remember about the rules of children’s hearing? Which are they? ”
• “What are the CPCJ for?”
• “Who hears children in the PJ?”
• “What are the courts for?”
• “What are the names of the people who work in the court?”
• “How did the Daffy make you feel?”

With the goal of increasing knowledge about some rights of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, this game consists of the presentation of 12 carts. On turning the card, the player will have an illustrated description of a right.
In a playful and interactive way, the child can learn more about some of the rights.

The rights that are presented in this game are:
Article 3.º The best interests of the child
Article 9.º Separation from parents
Article 12.º The child’s opinion
Article 19.º Protection from abuse and neglect
Article 21.º Adoption
Article 22.º Refugee Children
Article 23.º Children with disabilities
Article 24.º Health and health services
Article 27.º Standard of living
Article 31.º Education
Article 34.º Sexual exploitation

Suggested complementary activities:
• Model some rights with plasticine.
• Make a drawing about the rights.
• Create a new right and illustrate it.
• Make a mime activity about one of the rights.
• Consult the illustrated version of the “Convention on the Rights of the Child” (available in “Resources”) and explore other rights.
• Look for objects related to the various rights (e.g., toy – right to play; pillow – right to rest; food – right to healthy food; paper airplane – right to freedom; cups with string connecting them – right to say what you think and feel/express your opinion; book – right to education; cotton – right to receive medical care).

Questions for reflection:
• “What are the rights you already knew?”
• “Are there any rights you didn’t know about? Which ones?”
• “What do you think about these rights?”
• “What did you learn from this game?”
• “If adults don’t respect these rights, how do you think you might feel? What should you do if an adult doesn’t respect any of these rights? Who can you talk about it? What can you do?”

The mazes are a familiar activity to many children, who, motivated by the discovery of the exit, go through the various paths.
With endless possibilities of different paths (the activity was built in a way that the child can find a new Maze for each game started), the child is challenged to find the way to some of the places where can be heard: Social Security, PJ and Court. To be more appealing, along the way, the child can pick up some bones to give to the Daffy dog.

Questions for reflection:
• “How did you feel while you were trying to get to… Social Security/PJ/Court?”
• “Have you been heard? How did you feel until you got there?”
• “Are you going to be heard? How do you think you’ll feel?”
• “If you feel worried, anxious, sad, or afraid, how can you express or say what are you feel?”
• “And what can you do to make yourself feel better?”
• “When the Duffy eats a bone, he feels very good and relaxed! What about you, what helps you to feel good and relaxed?”

Before or after a hearing process, children are expected to experience different emotions (pleasant or unpleasant). Unpleasant emotions are more difficult to express, the emotion roulette appears, then, as a game that facilitates this emotional expression process, facilitating the expression of sadness, guilt, fear, anger, shame, worry, frustration, and a general malaise sense. It is also intended to help the child to express more pleasant emotions, such as joy, courage, tranquility or a sense of well-being.

The child should spin the wheel, read the corresponding sentence, and say how she/he feels. If they can’t do it by themselves, the adult should help by reading the sentences.

Questions for reflection:
• “Tell me about other situations when you felt this way”.
• “When you feel this way, what can you say to yourself, to make you feel better?”
• “When you feel this way, what can you do to make yourself feel better?”
• “Who can you ask for help, if you feel this way?”

The wordsearch game is a familiar activity for many children that aims to search for the identified words. For this age group, this game has 6 words to find (out of 43 possible words), which appear randomly and which the child must search for.

The possible words are the following:
Court, Hear, Participate, Rights, Opinion, Children, Judge, Lawyer, Technician, Inspector, Duties, Police, Law, Argued, Hearing, Crime, Truth, Decision, Emotions, Secret, CPCJ, PJ, MP, Interests, Protection, Safety, Fear, Relax, Breathe, Relief, Victim, Innocent, Guilty, Empower, Honesty, Justice, Feelings.

Questions for reflection:
• “Did you know these word(s) before? What does it mean(s)?”
• “To you, this word means…”
• “Let’s figure out together the meaning of this word?”
• “What other words do you know that are similar to this one/have the same meaning?”
• “After you have found these words, are there any others that you think are similar that are not here?”

This activity involves the presentation of a total of 12 affirmations, and after reading each one, the child must choose one of two options: True or False.
After answering, the child will see a short message, telling him/her if she/he got it right or wrong. Independently of getting it right or wrong, a short additional explanation of the topic is always presented.
The affirmations that compose this activity are the following:

1 – I will be heard, and I can say that I didn’t understand the question.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – Good! If you don’t understand the question, you should ask to be explained a little better!
F – Wrong! If you don’t understand the question, you should ask to be explained a little better!

2 – My opinion is the only one that counts for the final decision.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – No! Your opinion is important, but there are other information and opinions that also count for the final decision!
F – Right! Your opinion is important, but there are other information and opinions that also count for the final decision!

3 – I am a child and I also have the right to have a lawyer.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – Correct! You have the right to a lawyer that can be requested by you, your parents, the public prosecutor, or the judge.
F – It was true! You have the right to a lawyer that can be requested by you, your parents, the public prosecutor, or the judge.
4 – The person who listens to me is concerned about defending my interests and rights.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – That’s right! The person who listens to you is concerned about defending your interests and rights!
F – Incorrect! The person who listens to you is concerned about defending your interests and rights!

5 – Being heard is like school: there are right and wrong answers.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – False! When you are being heard, remember that there are no right or wrong answers. It is about your opinion and your emotions and experiences.
F – True! When you are being heard, remember that there are no right or wrong answers. It is about your opinion and your emotions and experiences.

6 – When being heard, I must hide my emotions.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – No! When being heard, you should talk about what you are feeling. Your emotions are very important!
F – Right! When being heard, you should talk about what you are feeling. Your emotions are very important!

7. I can be heard at the court, at the CPCJ or in other services.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – You got it right! Being heard is a right that you have, and you can be heard in different services.
F – You’re wrong! Being heard is a right that you have, and you can be heard in different services.

8. When I am heard, I should say only what I know and remember.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – That’s right! You should tell the truth and only what you know and remember. You should not try to guess the answers or say what you think other people would like to hear.
F – Incorrect! You should tell the truth and only what you know and remember. You should not try to guess the answers or say what you think other people would like to hear.

9. It is very important to tell the truth.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – Very good! It is fundamental that you only tell the truth!
F – That’s wrong! It is fundamental that you only tell the truth!

10. At age 12, I can decide who I want to live with.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – You’re wrong! At age 12 you already have some maturity, but still, the final decision about who you should live with is always up to the court.
F – You got it right! At age 12 you already have some maturity, but still, the final decision about who you should live with is always up to the court.

11. Everything I say to technicians and judges is kept secret.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – You’re wrong! Confidentiality has some limitations, which means that what you say may be shared with other people who are part of the process.
F – Very good! Confidentiality has some limitations, which means that what you say may be shared with other people who are part of the process.

12. I am always heard alone.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – False! You have the right to be heard accompanied by a person you trust or a technician who will help you feel more comfortable.
F – That’s right! You have the right to be heard accompanied by a person you trust or a technician who will help you feel more comfortable.

The memory game is a familiar game to many children in this age group, and consists of trying to find the pairs of cards with matching images.
The game is presented with three levels of difficulty, and these levels are presented sequentially:
Level 1 – 12 cards (6 pairs)
Level 2 – 14 cards (7 pairs)
Level 3 – 16 cards (8 pairs)

The images that must be paired are as follows:
Child; Lawyer; Judge; Prosecutor; Daffy; PJ Inspector and Justice Officer.

Questions for reflection:
• “What is a/an … lawyer/judge/prosecutor/PJ Inspector and Justice Officer?”
• “How does this child who is going to be heard feel?”
• “Look at the Daffy! How can the Daffy help you relax when you are being heard in…?”

When the child knows will be heard, she/he may experience an increase of worry and anxiety, often associated to physiological chances (e.g., increased heart rate or respiratory rate, sweating, trembling) or behavioral chances (difficulty falling asleep, nightmares, chances in appetite).
In an anxious state, learning to breathe deeply (so-called diaphragmatic breathing) is fundamental to help the child to control his/her anxiety (e.g., decreasing the likelihood of gasping for breath). Deep breathing means that the child should be helped to inhale very slowly and deeply, and then very slowly let the air out. Often the metaphor of “inhaling as if smelling a flower, and exhaling as if blowing out the candles on a birthday cake” is used.
In this short video, the Daffy breathes in and out, showing the child how to do it, thus taking on a role-model.

Steps:
The adult should:
1. Show the Daffy video breathing in and out, explaining to the child the importance and advantages of breathing this way.
2. Imitate the Daffy and breathe deeply and slowly, too.
3. Ask the child to imitate the Daffy for brief minutes, at the same time she/he watches the video.
4. Ask the child to say how she/he feels after breathing in this way.
5. Help the child to identify different situations in which breathing in this way might help her/him feel more relaxed.

O Glossário ilustrado apresenta a definição de 16 termos, organizados em função dos diversos locais onde a criança pode ser ouvida, numa linguagem clara e acessível a crianças desta faixa etária. O Glossário ilustrado é especialmente importante na medida em que ajuda a criança a melhor compreender alguns conceitos e a sentir-se mais informado, o que tende a minimizar algumas preocupações ou mesmo um possível estado de ansiedade.
Estas definições pretendem ajudar o adulto a explicar à criança os diversos conceitos.

Os termos definidos são os seguintes: Tribunal, Juiz, Procurador do Ministério Público, Adoção, Advogado, Oficial de Justiça, Vítima, Testemunha, Comissão de Proteção de Crianças e Jovens (CPCJ), Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal e Ciências Forenses (INMLCF), Centro de Apoio Familiar e Aconselhamento Parental (CAFAP), Polícia de Segurança Pública (PSP), Guarda Nacional Republicana (GNR), Polícia Judiciária (PJ), Segurança Social, Hospital.

Após a audição da criança, é importante incentivá-la a expressar as suas emoções. O que sentiu enquanto estava a ser ouvida, como se sente agora, o que gostou mais ou menos?

De uma forma lúdica e descontraída, este material ajuda a criança a expressar-se, o que permite ao adulto ajudá-la a regular eventuais emoções mais desagradáveis.

O Diploma é uma forma de reforçar a criança pela sua colaboração no processo de audição.

Activities available for children and young people from 11-14 years old

The “Convention on the Rights of the Child” is, since 1989, and in Portugal since its ratification, in 1990, the diploma in which the essential rights of children and young people are written, recognizing their dignity, and guaranteeing their protection.
At the end, you will find some useful links: Convention on the Rights of the Child, video of the event organized by UNICEF to celebrate the adoption of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, by the UN General Assembly, and the Human Rights Convention.

Suggested complementary activities:
• Search for pictures on the Internet/magazines/newspapers related to one or more rights of the Convention.
• Record a video in which the young talks about Children’s Rights.

Questions for reflection:
• “What are the rights you already knew?”
• “Are there any rights you didn’t know about? Which ones?”
• “What do you think about these rights?”
• “If adults don’t respect these rights, what should you do? Who can you talk to about it? What can you do?”
• “Did you know these Human Rights? What do you think about them?”

Children and young people have the right to be heard and to express their opinion on issues that concern them, as well as to see their opinion considered in the decisions that are made.
Depending on the specific context of each situation, children/young people can be heard in different processes, judicial or extrajudicial, and in different entities, such as, for example, Social Security, Commissions for the Protection of Children and Young People (CPCJ), the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (INMLCF, I.P), the National Republican Guard (GNR), the Public Security Police (PSP), the Judiciary Police (PJ), the Directorate-General of Reintegration and Prison Services (DGRSP) or the court.
Before being heard, children or young should know how they are heard, where and who can hear them and, yet, some roles that will help them feel more confident, relaxed, and empowered.
We present a set of five videos that explain what a hearing process of children and young people is, what the rules are, and yet, some specifics of the hearing at CPCJ, in the PJ, and in court.

Questions for reflection:
• “Did you remember the rules of children and young people hearing? What are they?”
• “What do you think about these rules?”
• “What are the CPCJ for?”
• “Who hears children in the PJ and in what kinds of processes?”
• “Why are children and young people heard in court?”
• “How do you feel when you think that you are going to be heard?”

With the goal of increasing knowledge about some rights of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, this game consists of the presentation of 12 carts. On turning the card, the player will have an illustrated description of a right.

In a playful and interactive way, the child can learn more about some of the rights.

The rights that are presented in this game are:

Article 3.º The best interests of the child

Article 9.º Separation from parents

Article 12.º The child’s opinion

Article 19.º Protection from abuse and neglect

Article 21.º Adoption

Article 22.º Refugee Children

Article 23.º Children with disabilities

Article 24.º Health and health services

Article 27.º Standard of living

Article 31.º Education

Article 34.º Sexual exploitation

Suggested complementary activities:

Model some rights with plasticine.
Make a drawing about the rights.
Create a new right and illustrate it.
Make a mime activity about one of the rights.
Consult the illustrated version of the “Convention on the Rights of the Child” (available in “Resources”) and explore other rights.
Look for objects related to the various rights (e.g., toy – right to play; pillow – right to rest; food – right to healthy food; paper airplane – right to freedom; cups with string connecting them – right to say what you think and feel/express your opinion).

Questions for reflection:

“What are the rights you already knew?”
“Are there any rights you didn’t know about? Which ones?”
“What do you think about these rights?”
“What did you learn from this game?”
“If adults don’t respect these rights, how do you think you might feel? What should you do if an adult doesn’t respect any of these rights? Who can you talk about it? What can you do?”

When the child knows will be heard, she/he may experience an increase of worry and anxiety, often associated to physiological chances (e.g., increased heart rate or respiratory rate, sweating, trembling) or behavioral chances (e.g., difficulty falling asleep, nightmares, chances in appetite).
In an anxious state, learning to breathe deeply (so-called diaphragmatic breathing) is fundamental to help the child to control his/her anxiety (e.g., decreasing the likelihood of gasping for breath).

Deep breathing means that the child should be helped to inhale very slowly and deeply, and then very slowly let the air out.

In this podcasts section it is possible to read or listen to the testimonies of six young people who were heard in the Commissions for the Protection of Children and Young People (CPCJ), in Social Security, in court, in the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (INMLCF, I.P), in the Directorate-General of Reintegration and Prison Services (DGRSP), and in the Judiciary Police (PJ). In each testimony, the young explain the reasons for his or her hearing, how they felt, and what they learned. The testimonies also try to establish a relationship with the different children’s and young people’s rights.
A podcast on relaxation is also presented, with a brief relaxation training that the child/young should try, train, and use whenever they feel more anxious or worried.

Questions for reflection:
– “What do you think about this testimony?”
– “How do you think it made him/her feel…?
– “Imagine it was you being heard in… how would you feel?”
– “Does this testimony make you think about of any other children’s and young people’s rights? Which one(s)?”
– “In what situations do you feel more anxious or worried?”
– “What helps you relax when you feel more anxious or worried?”

In this podcasts section it is possible to read or listen to the testimonies of six young people who were heard in the Commissions for the Protection of Children and Young People (CPCJ), in Social Security, in court, in the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (INMLCF, I.P), in the Directorate-General of Reintegration and Prison Services (DGRSP), and in the Judiciary Police (PJ). In each testimony, the young explain the reasons for his or her hearing, how they felt, and what they learned. The testimonies also try to establish a relationship with the different children’s and young people’s rights.
A podcast on relaxation is also presented, with a brief relaxation training that the child/young should try, train, and use whenever they feel more anxious or worried.

Questions for reflection:
– “What do you think about this testimony?”
– “How do you think it made him/her feel…?
– “Imagine it was you being heard in… how would you feel?”
– “Does this testimony make you think about of any other children’s and young people’s rights? Which one(s)?”
– “In what situations do you feel more anxious or worried?”
– “What helps you relax when you feel more anxious or worried?”

Before or after a hearing process, children are expected to experience different emotions (pleasant or unpleasant). Unpleasant emotions are more difficult to express, the emotion roulette appears, then, as a game that facilitates this emotional expression process, facilitating the expression of sadness, guilt, fear, anger, shame, worry, frustration, and a general malaise sense. It is also intended to help the child to express more pleasant emotions, such as joy, courage, tranquility or a sense of well-being.

The child should spin the wheel, read the corresponding sentence, and say how she/he feels. If they can’t do it by themselves, the adult should help by reading the sentences.

Questions for reflection:
• “Tell me about other situations when you felt this way”.
• “When you feel this way, what can you say to yourself, to make you feel better?”
• “When you feel this way, what can you do to make yourself feel better?”
• “Who can you ask for help, if you feel this way?”

The wordsearch game is a familiar activity for many children that aims to search for the identified words. For this age group, the game has 10 words to find (out of 43 possible words), which appear randomly and which the child/young must search for.

The possible words are the following:
Court, Hear, Participate, Rights, Opinion, Children, Judge, Lawyer, Technician, Inspector, Duties, Police, Law, Argued, Hearing, Crime, Truth, Decision, Emotions, Secret, CPCJ, PJ, MP, Interests, Protection, Safety, Fear, Relax, Breathe, Relief, Victim, Innocent, Guilty, Empower, Honesty, Justice, Feelings.

Questions for reflection:
• “Did you know these word(s) before? What does it mean(s)?”
• “To you, this word means…”
• “Let’s figure out together the meaning of this word?”
• “What other words do you know that are similar to this one/have the same meaning?”
• “After you have found these words, are there any others that you think are similar that are not here?”

This activity involves the presentation of a total of 12 affirmations, and after reading each one, the child must choose one of two options: True or False.
After answering, the child will see a short message, telling him/her if she/he got it right or wrong. Independently of getting it right or wrong, a short additional explanation of the topic is always presented.
The affirmations that compose this activity are the following:

1 – I will be heard, and I can say that I didn’t understand the question.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – Good! If you don’t understand the question, you should ask to be explained a little better!
F – Wrong! If you don’t understand the question, you should ask to be explained a little better!

2 – My opinion is the only one that counts for the final decision.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – No! Your opinion is important, but there are other information and opinions that also count for the final decision!
F – Right! Your opinion is important, but there are other information and opinions that also count for the final decision!

3 – I am a child and I also have the right to have a lawyer.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – Correct! You have the right to a lawyer that can be requested by you, your parents, the public prosecutor, or the judge.
F – It was true! You have the right to a lawyer that can be requested by you, your parents, the public prosecutor, or the judge.
4 – The person who listens to me is concerned about defending my interests and rights.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – That’s right! The person who listens to you is concerned about defending your interests and rights!
F – Incorrect! The person who listens to you is concerned about defending your interests and rights!

5 – Being heard is like school: there are right and wrong answers.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – False! When you are being heard, remember that there are no right or wrong answers. It is about your opinion and your emotions and experiences.
F – True! When you are being heard, remember that there are no right or wrong answers. It is about your opinion and your emotions and experiences.

6 – When being heard, I must hide my emotions.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – No! When being heard, you should talk about what you are feeling. Your emotions are very important!
F – Right! When being heard, you should talk about what you are feeling. Your emotions are very important!

7. I can be heard at the court, at the CPCJ or in other services.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – You got it right! Being heard is a right that you have, and you can be heard in different services.
F – You’re wrong! Being heard is a right that you have, and you can be heard in different services.

8. When I am heard, I should say only what I know and remember.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – That’s right! You should tell the truth and only what you know and remember. You should not try to guess the answers or say what you think other people would like to hear.
F – Incorrect! You should tell the truth and only what you know and remember. You should not try to guess the answers or say what you think other people would like to hear.

9. It is very important to tell the truth.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – Very good! It is fundamental that you only tell the truth!
F – That’s wrong! It is fundamental that you only tell the truth!

10. At age 12, I can decide who I want to live with.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – You’re wrong! At age 12 you already have some maturity, but still, the final decision about who you should live with is always up to the court.
F – You got it right! At age 12 you already have some maturity, but still, the final decision about who you should live with is always up to the court.

11. Everything I say to technicians and judges is kept secret.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – You’re wrong! Confidentiality has some limitations, which means that what you say may be shared with other people who are part of the process.
F – Very good! Confidentiality has some limitations, which means that what you say may be shared with other people who are part of the process.

12. I am always heard alone.
Subsequent explanation if the choice is V or F:
V – False! You have the right to be heard accompanied by a person you trust or a technician who will help you feel more comfortable.
F – That’s right! You have the right to be heard accompanied by a person you trust or a technician who will help you feel more comfortable.

The Glossary presents the definition of 62 terms, in alphabetical order, in clear and accessible language for children and young people in this age group. Also present in the “Resources” section, the Glossary is especially important because it helps the child/young better understand some concepts and feel more informed, which tends to minimize a possible state of anxiety.

The defined terms are the following: Sexual abuse, judgment/ruling (pt: acórdão), accusation, adoption, lawyer, defendant, social worker, child hearing, gown (pt: beca), cybercrime, commission for the protection of children and young people, consent, crime, detention, child rights, directorate-general of reintegration and prison services, national republican guard, inquiry, national institute of legal medicine and forensic sciences, judge, social judge, trial, law of promotion and protection of children and young people in danger, educational tutelary law, maltreatment, tutelary educational measures, negligence, injured (pt: ofendido), bailiff (pt: oficial de justiça), criminal police organizations/agencies, prison sentence, judicial police, public security police, prosecutor, tutelares cíveis, psychologist, plaintiff, parental responsibilities, defendant, social security, sentence, suspect, witness, toga, court, family and juvenile court, victim.

The child’s hearing can happen in different contexts and it is essential to know some procedures that can help the child to be heard in a more adequate way, thus enhancing positive feelings and a greater sense of well-being.

Here you will find some materials that systematize the good practices of the child’s hearing process, oriented according to their age and level of development, also addressing the variables of the physical environment, the interview and the interviewer.

Texts available for consultation

Related Podcasts

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projeto 12 - Justiça para Crianças